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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 20 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 97-156

Online since Saturday, July 18, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Global longitudinal strain changes during hemorrhagic shock: An experimental study p. 97
Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Pierre-Géraud Claret, Laurent Muller, Jean Emmanuel de La Coussaye, Jean Yves Lefrant, Iris Schuster, Claire Roger, Xavier Bobbia
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290066  
OBJECTIVES: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) appears sensitive and reproducible to identify left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The main objective was to analyze the GLS changes in an anesthetized-piglet model of controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS). The secondary objective was to evaluate if GLS changes was different depending on the expansion fluid treatment with or without norepinephrine. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized and ventilated piglets were bled until the mean arterial pressure reached 40 mmHg. Controlled hemorrhage was maintained for 30 min before randomizing the piglets to three resuscitation groups: control group, LR group (resuscitated with lactated ringer), and NA group (resuscitated with lactated ringer and norepinephrine). RESULTS: There was no difference in the baseline hemodynamic, biological, and ultrasound data among the three groups. During the hemorrhagic phase, the GLS increased significantly from 25 mL/kg of depletion. During the resuscitation phase, the GLS decreased significantly from 20 mL/kg of fluid administration. There was no difference in GLS variation among the groups during the hemorrhagic, maintenance, and resuscitation phases. CONCLUSION: In our HS model, GLS increased with hemorrhage and decreased during resuscitation, showing its preload dependence.
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Contribution of caval index and ejection fraction estimated by e-point septal separation measured by emergency physicians in the clinical diagnosis of acute heart failure p. 105
Murat Duyan, Aslıhan Yürüktümen Ünal, İbrahim Ulaş Özturan, Ertuğ Günsoy
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290065  
OBJECTIVES: Although the reliability of e-point septal separation (EPSS) and caval index (CI) is proven in the diagnosis of acute heart failure (AHF), how much they contribute to the initial clinical impression is unclear. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic contribution of EPSS and CI to the initial clinical impression of AHF. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted in an academic emergency department (ED). The patients admitted to the ED with acute undifferentiated dyspnea were included. Primary diagnosis was made after an initial clinical evaluation, and a secondary diagnosis was made after EPSS and CI measurements. Independent cardiologists made the final diagnosis. The primary outcome was the diagnostic contribution of EPSS and CI to the primary diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were included in the study. The primary diagnosis was found with a sensitivity of 0.55 and specificity of 0.84 and the secondary diagnosis was determined with a sensitivity of 0.78 and specificity of 0.83 in predicting the final diagnosis. The agreement coefficient between the primary and final diagnosis was 0.44 and between the secondary diagnosis and the final diagnosis was 0.61. When the primary diagnosis was coherent with secondary diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity were found to be 0.74 and 0.90, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although a detailed history and physical examination are the essential factors in shaping clinical perception, CI and EPSS combined significantly contribute to the initial clinical impression.
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Which patient should start empirical antibiotic treatment in urinary tract infection in emergency departments? p. 111
Aykut Baser, Atakan Yilmaz, Hülya Yilmaz Başer, Yusuf Özlülerden, Ali Ersin Zümrütbaş
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290064  
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the factors that would lead the doctors in EDs to a more the accurate diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) and the correct initiation of empirical antibiotherapy in the emergency room and reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotherapy. METHODS: This study is a prospective observational study from a single-center, investigating patients with an age of 18 years and older who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the symptoms of UTI between January and May 2018. The guiding parameters to establish a UTI diagnosis and start an empirical antibiotherapy were investigated between the negative (Group 1) and positive (>103 colonies) (Group 2) groups, as a result of urine culture in terms of urine culture. RESULTS: Our study included a total of 108 patients (59 women and 49 men). The average age was 47.11 ± 14.97. Age and gender were similar among the groups and not a discriminating factor in the diagnosis of UTI. High Charlson Comorbidity Index score, history of chronic kidney failure and cerebrovascular disease, leukocyte esterase, nitrite positivity, and leukocyte cluster presence were higher in Group 2. We suggest that these parameters might be predictive values to detect bacterial growth in urine culture. Empirical antibiotherapy was started in 48.4% of the patients in Group 1 and 95.7% of the patients in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: In EDs, admission complaints of the patients and physical examination findings do not always result in the diagnosis of UTI. Our study showed that UTI diagnosis could be made more accurately using leukocyte esterase, nitrite positivity, the presence of leukocyte clusters, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index score. We also suggest that regional antibiotic resistance should be considered before starting empirical antibiotherapy.
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An intelligent system for improving adherence to guidelines on acute stroke p. 118
Amir Torab-Miandoab, Taha Samad-Soltani, Samad Shams-Vahdati, Peyman Rezaei-Hachesu
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290062  
OBJECTIVES: A timely, accurate assessment and decision-making process is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of the acute stroke, which is the world's third leading cause of death. This process is often performed using the traditional method that increases the complexity, duration, and medical errors. The present study aimed to design and evaluate an intelligent system for improving adherence to the guidelines on the assessment and treatment of acute stroke patients. METHODS: Decision-making rules and data elements were used to predict the severity and to treat patients according to the specialists' opinions and guidelines. A system was then developed based on the intelligent decision-making algorithms. The system was finally evaluated by measuring the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, performance, esthetics, information quality, and completeness and rates of medical errors. The segmented regression model was used to evaluate the effect of systems on the level and the trend of guideline adherence for the assessment and treatment of acute stroke. RESULTS: Fifty-three data elements were identified and used in the data collection and comprehensive decision-making rules. The rules were organized in a decision tree. In our analysis, 150 patients were included. The system accuracy was 98.30%. Evaluation results indicated an error rate of 1.69% by traditional methods. Documentation quality (completeness) increased from 78.66% to 100%. The average score of system quality was 4.60 indicating an acceptable range. After the system intervention, the mean of the adherence to the guideline significantly increased from 65% to 99.5% (P < 0.0008). CONCLUSION: The designed system was accurate and can improve adherence to the guideline for the severity assessment and the determination of a therapeutic trend for acute stroke patients. It leads to physicians' empowerment, significantly reduces medical errors, and improves the documentation quality.
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Critical events during intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients to and from intensive care unit p. 135
Mohd Qurram Parveez, Lakshmi Narayana Yaddanapudi, Vikas Saini, Kamal Kajal, Ankur Sharma
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290067  
OBJECTIVES: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at an increased risk of many catastrophic events during intrahospital transport (IHT) for various procedures. This study was planned to determine the incidence and types of adverse events occurring during the transport of critically ill patients in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care hospital for 8 months after ethical clearance from the institute ethics committee. All patients transported out of the ICU during the audit period for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were included in the study. Vitals and several study parameters were recorded before, during, and after shifting patients to and from the ICU. Various critical events were noted during transport and classified into major and minor critical events based on the presence and absence of potential consequences that lead to a change of therapy during transport. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients were studied for consecutive IHT to and from the ICU. The patients were transported for imaging studies (58.1%), minor surgery (31.8%), major surgery (2.5%), and other procedures (7.5%). A total of 248 critical events were observed in 104 IHTs (65%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 57.4%–72.1%). Hence, an average of 2.38 critical events occurred per IHT. There were 31 major events among the 248 critical events (12.5%; 95% CI: 8.8%–17.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Standard guidelines about the accompanying personnel and monitoring need to be followed during IHT. Conduct of minor surgical procedures in the ICU and better bedside diagnostic procedures may be considered for the future.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A case of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: A rare oncologic emergency p. 142
Aydan Mutis Alan, Ozkan Alan
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290061  
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency. It generally occurs after chemotherapy but sometimes develops spontaneously in hematologic malignancy, such as leukemia. TLS is a rare phenomenon in patients with solid tumors, particularly when it develops spontaneously. Here, we present a case of spontaneous TLS (STLS) in a patient with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a case of STLS in a 59-year-old male patient who presented with dyspnea and oliguria. Clinicians should suspect TLS in patients with malignancy, who demonstrate the classic electrolyte abnormalities of TLS even if not receiving treatment such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
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Hepatic hydatid cyst presenting as a cutaneous fistula p. 146
Moien A B. Khan, Mohamed I Abusharia, Hussam M Mousa, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290071  
Hepatic hydatid cysts are usually asymptomatic. Nevertheless, they may rupture, causing anaphylactic shock or fistulation. Cutaneous fistulae caused by ruptured hepatic hydatid cysts are extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of infected cutaneous fistula caused by a ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst. A 57-year-old man presented to Al-Ain Hospital complaining of swelling in his right upper quadrant (RUQ) of 5 months' duration. The abdomen was soft, having a fluctuant tender swelling of 12 cm × 15 cm in the RUQ associated with a pus discharging fistula. The patient was admitted with a provisional diagnosis of abdominal wall abscess with pending sepsis. Surgical incision and drainage were performed under general anesthesia. Initially, around 15 ml of pus was drained, followed by the removal of multiple sized transparent cysts typical of hydatid disease. Postoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiloculated hepatic cysts in the sixth, seventh, and left lobes with the involvement of the abdominal wall. The patient was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 30 days. Repeated CT scan at 4-month follow-up showed a significant reduction of size of the cysts, indicating proper response to treatment. A cutaneous fistula as a complication of a ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst is extremely rare. Awareness of this complication, especially in endemic areas, and using proper imaging and serological tests are vital for reaching a proper diagnosis.
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Prolongation of QT interval due to hydroxychloroquine overdose used in COVID-19 treatment p. 149
Gökhan Aksel, Mehmet Muzaffer Islam, Tuncay Aslan, Serkan Emre Eroglu
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290063  
Hydroxychloroquine is one of the most commonly used drugs in COVID-19 treatment. In this case report, we aimed to present a young patient whose QT interval was prolonged due to hydroxychloroquine overdose which was given for COVID-19 treatment. This is the first reported case of QT interval prolongation at a low dose of 1.600 mg in the literature. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea, diarrhea, and weakness. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 a day prior and home isolation was recommended with hydroxychloroquine and oseltamivir P. O. treatment. His complaints started 6 h after accidentally taking 1.600 mg of hydroxychloroquine P. O. at the same time. On physical examination, the Glasgow Coma Scale was 15, and neurological, respiratory, and abdominal examinations were normal. His pulse was 54 beats/min, oxygen saturation was 99%, arterial blood pressure was 122/82 mmHg, and fever was 36.5°C. Electrocardiography (ECG) showed sinus bradycardia and corrected QT interval was calculated as 510 ms. The QT interval prolongation and bradycardia persisted, and the patient was hospitalized for follow-up and treatment. He was discharged on the 3rd day of his hospitalization after the corrected QT interval was detected to be 420 ms and his bradycardia improved. Due to the potential cardiac side effects, patients who are sent to home isolation with treatment should be educated about the use, dosage, and possible side effects of this medicine, and serial ECG monitoring should be provided to patients who are hospitalized.
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A rare case of intestinal obstruction: Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis of unknown cause p. 152
Jeong Ho Kang
DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290068  
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is characterized by the partial or complete enclosing of the small intestines by a thick fibro-collagenous membrane, which can cause recurrent intestinal obstruction. SEP is a clinically rare disease, and the major risk factor is peritoneal dialysis (PD). Early diagnosis of SEP is an important factor in the patient's prognosis, but it is clinically difficult. A 52-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with a 2-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. She had a history of liver cirrhosis with chronic hepatitis B, but no history of PD, and she underwent a biopsy of the peritoneum by laparoscopy a month ago. On physical examination, there were peritoneal irritation signs on the right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed dilated small intestinal loops clustered in the RLQ, which were surrounded by a sac-like, thick fibrous membrane. Based on CT findings, small intestinal obstruction due to SEP was early diagnosed in the ED. Emergency physicians should include SEP in the differential diagnosis of the cause of intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT is a useful modality for the early diagnosis of SEP in the ED.
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Novel coronavirus pandemic: A global health threat p. 156

DOI:10.4103/2452-2473.290069  
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