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   Instructions to Authors


Downloads Instructions to Authors v14 (Updated: Sept 2020) | Copyright Form (Updated: 1 May 2020) | Patient Consent Form 

Templates: First Pages File - For all article types (v14, 20 Sept 2020) | Article File – For all article types (v14, 20 Sept 2020) | Revision Note Template


Table of Contents

Guides: Limits of Article Types | Quick Submission Guide | 

Policies: Editorial Policies | Peer-review Process and Policies | Publishing Policies


Limits of Article Types

Article Type Word Count1 Abstract Word Count References Authors Figures and Tables
Original Research 4000 500 30 8 6
Invited Review 4000 500 30 5 To be discussed
Case Report/Series 2000 500 15 5 3
Letter to the Editor 1000 No Abstract 5 2 Not allowed

1Including abstract, references, tables and figure legends


QUICK SUBMISSION GUIDE

General Information 

All files should be typed 

  • in Arial, Helvetica, Times New Roman, or Calibri with the font size of 11 or 12 pt.,
  • single-column format, double-spaced (Home > Line and paragraph spacing > 2.0)
  • with Normal margins (2.5 cm on each side, Layout > Margins > Normal)
  • without line numbers

 

Submission Files 

You may upload First Page File / Cover Letter (mandatory), Main Document / Article File (mandatory), Figures, Supplementary Files and Videos.

  • First Pages File / Cover Letter (.doc or .docx)

    • Cover Letter
    • Title Page 
      • Title, Running Title, Type of the Article 
      • Authors and Affiliations (past [during the study] and present) + ORCIDs of ALL authors 
      • Corresponding author and address
    • Disclosures
      • Presentation(s) or Awards at a meeting – if present
      • Acknowledgement(s) – optional
      • Source(s) of Support and Funding – Mandatory for all article types
      • Conflict of Interest Statement – Mandatory for all article types
      • Author Contributions CReDiT Statement – Mandatory for all article types
      • Consent to Participate – Mandatory for Original Articles and Case Reports
      • Ethical Approval – Mandatory for Original Articles
  • Main Document / Article File 

    • Title, Abstract, Keywords
    • Box-ED section – for Original Articles
    • Blinded Main text
    • References, Tables, Figures and Figure Legends
  • Figures (.png, .jpg, .jpeg, .pdf) 

Should be uploaded as separate files even if they are embedded in the Main Document. Maximum 10 MB.

 

Original Articles

  • Studies of basic or clinical investigations in emergency medicine. These articles may include randomized controlled trials, observational (cohort, case-control or cross-sectional) studies, descriptive studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, non-randomized behavioral and public health intervention trials, experimental animal trials, or any other clinical or experimental studies.
    • Abstract: Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusion
    • Box-ED section,
    • Blinded Main Text: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Limitations, Conclusion

Case Reports / Case Series

  • Brief descriptions of clinical cases or the complications that are seldom encountered in emergency medicine practice and have an educational value. Consideration will be given to articles presenting clinical conditions, clinical manifestations or complications previously undocumented in the existing literature and unreported side of adverse effects of the known treatment regimens or scientific findings that may trigger further research on the topic.
  • Case reports should be compatible with The CARE Guidelines: Consensus-based Clinical Case Reporting Guideline which can be found on the Resources for Authors Page
    • Abstract: unstructured,
      • Blinded Main Text: Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conclusion

Letter to the Editor

  • Opinions, comments and suggestions made concerning articles published in Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine or other journals.
    • No abstract

Invited Review Articles

  • Comprehensive articles reviewing national and international literature related to current emergency medicine practice. Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine publishes only invited review articles. Other authors should contact the editor prior to submission of review articles.

GENERAL RULES

Language

Manuscripts should be written in English. Contributors who are not native English speakers are strongly advised to ensure that a colleague fluent in the English language or a professional language editor has reviewed their manuscript. Concise English without jargon should be used. Repetitive use of long sentences and passive voice should be avoided. It is strongly recommended that the text be run through computer spelling and grammar programs. Either British or American spelling is acceptable but must be consistent throughout. 

Symbols

If symbols such as ×, μ, η, or ν are used, they should be added using the Symbols menu of Word. Degree symbols (°) must be used from the Symbol menu, not superscripted letter o or number 0. Multiplication symbols must be used (×), not the letter x. Spaces must be inserted between numbers and units (e.g., 3 kg) and between numbers and mathematical symbols (+, –, ×, =, <, >), but not between numbers and percent symbols (e.g., 45%). 

Units

Measurements should be reported using the metric system according to the International System of Units (SI). Laboratory values should be presented with normal limits. 

Abbreviations

All abbreviations in the text must be defined the first time they are used (both in the abstract and the main text), and the abbreviations should be displayed in parentheses after the definition. 

Authors should avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract and limit their use in the main text.

We discourage the use of any but the most necessary of abbreviations. They may be a convenience for an author but are generally an impediment to easy comprehension for the reader. 

Footnotes in the document and Tables

The following symbols should be used, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, |, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡ 

Drugs, Products, Hardware and Software

Generic names for drugs should be used. Doses and routes for the drugs should be stated. When a drug, product, hardware, or software mentioned within the main text product information, including the name of the product, producer of the product, city of the company and the country of the company should be provided in parenthesis in the following format: "Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA)". 

Authorship

Authorship credit should be based only on 

  1. substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 
  2. drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 
  3. final approval of the version to be published. 

Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met. Any contributor acted in condition 1 should be given chance to contribute to conditions 2 and 3. Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship.


INITIAL SUBMISSIONS

Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine accepts manuscript via an online submission system. Users should create an account before submitting their manuscripts. Papers that do not comply with the format of the Journal will be returned to the author for correction without peer-review. Therefore, to avoid loss of time and work, authors must carefully review the submission rules. All the following information that you will be providing should be the same as the First Pages and Article Files.

Click the “Submit New Manuscript” button on the upper banner.

Step 1: Checklist and Disclaimer. 

By clicking the button from the account registered by your e-mail from the IP address you have connected, you agree: 1) that you are the legal corresponding author, 2) that all authors approve the content provided, 3) that the content is not submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere, 4) to provide the data regarding the study or manuscript for examination (not publication) if requested, 5) that you completely disclosed all financial interests and conflicts, 6) that you provided sources of all support, 7) that you acknowledged all supporters and 8) to transfer all copyright to the Journal.

Please answer this list of disclaimer questions and click the “I/We Agree” button below to proceed.

Step 2: Document Upload and Selection of the File Type. 

You can drag and drop all required submission files in a single step. As soon as you drop files in the gray upload area files are uploaded and successfully uploaded files are listed at the end of the page. 

By clicking the drop-down menu next to the File Name under the File Type column, you should select the correct file type for each uploaded document.

  • First Page File / Cover Letter (Mandatory): Only MS Word doc or docx files are accepted, do not upload pdf files. see First Pages File section below.
  • Main Documents / Article File (Mandatory): Only MS Word doc or docx files are accepted, do not upload pdf files. see Article File section below.
  • Figures: Images, Photographs, Charts, Line drawings. Only jpg, jpeg or png files. Images should be optimum for print production (About 1800 x 1600 pixels or 8 x 6 inches with 300 dpi). Maximum 10 MB.
  • Supplementary files: Maximum 10 MB. Datasets, Questionnaires, Additional documents, Infographics can be uploaded. Any file you will provide here will be visible to the reviewers.
  • Videos: Maximum 15 MB.

Click “Save and Continue” to proceed. 

Step 3: Type, Title and Abstract 

  • Article Type: Select Case Report/Series, Invited Review Article, Letter to Editor or Original Article.
    • We do not accept any Invited Review Article without invitation. Please contact Editors-in-chief from [email protected] before proceding further.
    • Letters to Editor will not be published in an issue. Will only be included in the website along the referred article. 
  • Article Title: Maximum 500 characters. Generally, nondeclarative, not a question, begins with main concept if possible, and without causal language, e.g., "effect of," unless the study is an RCT. The full title in should be in sentence case. The title of the letter to editor should start as “Correspondence”. The first sentence of the manuscript file will be automatically retrieved as the title. 
  • Running Title: Shorter version of the Title to be published at the header of each page after the first page. 
  • Abstract: Maximum 3500 characters. Section after the Abstract title will be automatically retrieved as the title.
  • Word Count: Automatically calculated
  • Number of Black and White Figures: Automatically calculated if embedded in the manuscript file.
  • Number of Color Figures: Automatically calculated if embedded in the manuscript file.
  • Number of Tables: Automatically calculated from the manuscript file.
  • Number of Pages: Automatically calculated from the manuscript file.
  • Keywords: Copy and paste at least 3 keywords
  • Trial Registration Number: Copy and paste from the title page if present.

Click “Save and Continue” to proceed. 

Step 4: Authors and Institutions. 

You should provide the complete affiliation details exactly as they are provided in the First Pages File.

You will be listed in the author list with the information you provided during the registration. You can update your information by clicking the green “Update” button at the last column named “Action”.

You can add authors from the button on the right upper corner, and then you may order them with the button next to it. 

  • Write the First Name (start with a capital letter), Middle Name (if present, start with a capital letter) and Last Name (all capital letter). 
  • Affiliation (in English, in the order of Department or Division, Faculty, Institution or University, City, State, Country).
  • ORCID: Articles with missing ORCIDs for any of the authors will not be published. You can click the Validate ORCID to check the number provided.

Click “Save and Continue” to proceed. 

Step 5: Author Review and Final Submit

You may suggest reviewers by clicking the button on the right upper corner.  

Click “Preview Your Manuscript” to review the submission files. If you are satisfied click the box to confirm your file. An answer should be provided.

Click the Appropriate answer for the “Declaration of Conflict of Interest”. An answer should be provided.

Click the Copyright Form link under the “Copyright Agreement” to view, confirm and transfer copyright. 

Click the last box to confirm that you have read, understood, and agreed to the submission guidelines, policies and submission declaration of the journal. 

Click “Submit” or “Submit Later” as convenient.


SUBMISSION AFTER TECHNICAL MODIFICATIONS AND REVISIONS

When you log in to the system, you will see the status of your manuscripts on your dashboard under 5 sections: 

  • Manuscripts requiring technical modification
  • Manuscripts requiring revision
  • Manuscripts in decision
  • Manuscripts for proofing
  • Incomplete Submissions

 

  • Technical Modification: Your submission is not fully compatible with this submission guidelines. 
    • Click the Comments and Files button to read why the editor send your submission back. 
    • After you corrected your article click Action to restart submission process. Delete the files you do not want to preserve and upload the new ones. Proceed as initial submission and submit your article. 
  • Revision: This is the default mode for minor and major revision requests. 
    • Click the Comments and Files button to read reviewer comments and download any files they have sent. 
    • After you corrected your article click Action to restart submission process. Delete the files you do not want to preserve and upload the new ones. 
    • You need to upload your Replief to Reviewers in a separate Comment File. You may download the template file from the Templates menu of your submission dashboard.  
  • Request for withdrawal: You may click the Request for withdrawal if you decide not to proceed with your submission, and would like to try another journal. Remember that you electronically signed the copyright transfer agreement during your initial submission, and submitting your manuscript to another journal without proper withdrawal may cause legal and ethical problems. 

SUBMISSION FILES

First Pages File / Cover Letter (Mandatory)

This is a combined file of the Cover Letter, Title Page and Disclosures.

Cover Letter

What is the main strength of your article? The title and type of the article, prior publication, support, conflicts of interest, and permissions may also be provided. 

Title Page

  • Title: Generally, nondeclarative, not a question, begins with main concept if possible, and without causal language, e.g., "effect of," unless the study is an RCT. The title page should contain the full title in sentence case. The title of the letter to the editor should start as “Correspondence”.
  • Running Title: a short title of no more than 50 characters.
  • Type of Article (Case Report, Case Series, Original Article, Meta-Analysis, Invited Review, Letter to the Editor) 
  • Authors and Affiliations (past and present)
    • Full names (last names fully capitalized), Academic degrees (up to 2 per author: MD, DO, PhD, etc.), Affiliations (in English, in the order of Department or Division, Faculty, Institution or University, City, State, Country) in order in separate lines, E-mail address.
    • State the corresponding author by writing (Corresponding Author) in the same line 
    • Do NOT include honorary affiliations such as fellow status in an organization (FEMAT, FACEP etc.), titles or positions (Professorship or Consulting positions, etc.).
    • ORCIDs: ORC IDs of all authors should be included
  • Corresponding Author and Address: Full Name, contact information including address, phone, e-mail address and Twitter Handle (so we can use it to disseminate your article if accepted).

Disclosures

  • Presentation(s) or Awards at a meeting: Provide the name of the organization, place and the date.
  • Acknowledgement(s):  Verify and confirm that everyone who contributed to this manuscript is either listed as an author or acknowledged as a contributor in the acknowledgement section, and that the title page details any professional writing assistance or others paid to provide manuscript support. 
  • Source(s) of Support and Funding: Acknowledge all organizations that funded your research and provide grant numbers where appropriate. The statement should include: specific grant numbers, Initials of authors who received each award, full names of commercial companies that funded the study or authors, initials of authors who received salary or other funding from commercial companies, URLs to sponsors’ websites. If the study was unfunded, please state: “The author(s) received no specific funding for this work."
  • Conflict of Interest statement: Please disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) your work. If no such conflict of interest exists; please state: “The authors declare no conflict of interest”.
  • Author Contributions Statement (CRedIT Statement): Authorship provides credit for a researcher’s contributions to a study and carries accountability. Check the Authorship section above. The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section so readers can judge that the authorship criteria for each author has been met, and who is accountable for which section of the article. This list may be revised according to the research and article type. We encourage the use of Contributor Role Taxonomy (CRediT) for listing author contributions – for details check: https://casrai.org/credit/ - Possible contributor roles that you may use are listed below. Multiple roles are possible and encouraged. Authors should be mentioned with their INITIALS, after each role. 
    • Conceptualization – Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.
    • Data curation – Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later re-use.
    • Formal analysis – Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data.
    • Funding acquisition ​- Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.
    • Investigation – ​Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.
    • Methodology – Development or design of methodology; creation of models.
    • Project administration – Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.
    • Resources – Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.
    • Software – Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.
    • Supervision – Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.
    • Validation – Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.
    • Visualization – Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.
    • Writing – original draft – ​Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).
    • Writing – review & editing – Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre- or post-publication stages.

While preparing the statement, follow the below principles:

  • List all Contributions – All contributions should be listed, whether from those listed as authors or individuals named in acknowledgements;
  • Multiple Roles Possible – Individual contributors can be assigned multiple roles, and a given role can be assigned to multiple contributors;
  • Degree of Contribution Optional – Where multiple individuals serve in the same role, the degree of contribution can optionally be specified as ‘lead’, ‘equal’, or ‘supporting’;
  • Shared Responsibility – Corresponding authors should assume responsibility for role assignment, and all contributors should be given the opportunity to review and confirm assigned roles.

An example of an Authors’ Contribution statement using CRediT:

  • AB: review and editing (equal). CD: Conceptualization (lead); writing – original draft (lead); formal analysis (lead); writing – review and editing (equal). EF: Software (lead); writing – review and editing (equal). GH: Methodology (lead); writing – review and editing (equal). JK: Conceptualization (supporting); Writing – original draft (supporting); Writing – review and editing (equal).

 

  • Consent to Participate: A signed patient consent form should be available for mailing if required by the Editorial Office. If requested, we accept all kinds of consent forms (including forms with the logo of other journals, any hospital or affiliation). 
    • Case Reports: A detailed statement that written patient consent/next of kin is present should be included in the Title Page and as the final sentence of the Case Presentation section of the Manuscript File.
    • For Original Articles: A detailed statement that written patient consent/next of kin is present should be included in the in the Title Page and in the Methods section of the Manuscript File.
  • Ethical Approval: We do not consider any original articles for publication without an Ethical Board and/or Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval (or with an official letter showing exemption status) including retrospective studies and questionnaires. As per ICMJE guidelines a statement that an Ethical Board or Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval is present should be included:

- in the First Pages file under the "Ethical Approval" section. The name of the board, approval number, and approval date should be included here.
- in the Methods section of the Manuscript File. The name of the board should not be written here for blinding purposes.

Authors should be prepared to send a copy to the Journal if required. 

 

Main Documents / Article File (Mandatory)

The uploaded single Article File should include all the following sections:

  • Title, Abstract, 
    • Original Articles: Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusion. 
    • Case Reports: Unstructured
    • Invited Reviews: Unstructured
    • Letter to Editor: No abstract
  • Keywords: At least 3 keywords from MESH Database.
  • Box-ED section (for Original Articles only)
  • Blinded Main Text,
    • Original Articles: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Limitations, Conclusion
    • Case Reports: Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, Conclusion
  • References, Tables, Figure Legends,
  • Figures: May be embedded to the main document. But should also be uploaded separately as well.

 

Box-ED Section

A brief description of study rationale and main findings are demonstrated in Box-ED section in Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine. It is encouraged to highlight the outputs of the current study. No quantitative measures are required for this section, only the key questions should be answered in bullet points. Box-ED boxes are only required for research articles. 

Example:

What is already known on the study topic?

  • Coronary artery disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. 
  • After cardiac arrest, both immediate and delayed angiographic tecniques are used in patients with cardiac etiology.

What is the conflict on the issue? Has it importance for readers?

  • The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest remains uncertain. 
  • The right technique may increase survival or improve discharges in neurological intact status. 

How is this study structured?

  • This was a single-center, prospective cohort study includes data from approximately 300 patients.

What does this study tell us?

  • There was no difference in mortality and hospital discharge in terms of post-arrest strategy.

However, patients with an underlying structural cardiac disease may benefit from early PCI strategy.

 

Main Text of the Manuscript

You can download first page and article page template files case reports/series, original articles and invited reviews from https://turkjemergmed.com/pages/forms-templates-and-examples. Letter to the editor has no specific instructions. 

 

Original Articles

Introduction

  • A three-paragraph structure should be used. Background information on study subject (1st paragraph), context and the implications of the study (2nd paragraph) and the hypotheses and the goals of the study (3rd paragraph). 
  • Background: Describe the circumstances or historical context that set the stage and led you to investigate the issue. 
  • Context: Describe why your investigation is consequential. What are its potential implications? How does it relate to issues raised in the first paragraph? Why is this specific investigation the next logical step? 
  • Hypothesis and Goals of the study: Clearly state the specific research objective or hypothesis and your primary outcome measure.

 

Methods

The methods section is one of the most important sections in original research articles, and should contain sufficient detail for the following parts:

  • Study design and setting: The investigation method, or the design of the study. Describe the study design using standard terms, and describe the study setting in a fashion that conveys characteristics that could affect the external validity (generalizability) of the findings.
  • Selection of Participants: Study population, sample, selection of the sample. Describe how participants were identified, screened, and enrolled. Remember to consider all participants including patients, providers, and outcome assessors, as appropriate. There should be a list of the inclusion and exclusion criterion with descriptions. In survey studies, information concerning who implemented the survey and how it was performed should be specified.
  • Sample size estimation: Describe how you performed the sample size estimation, which tests, and assumptions were used, and which sample size estimation software was used (if relevant).
  • Interventions: Describe any interventions in sufficient detail to permit replication. Describe any blinding of subjects, providers, outcome assessors, or data analysts. Describe methods for determining whether the intervention was actually received.
  • Methods and Measurements: Details of measurements and evaluations (e.g.: make and model of biochemical test devices and kits) should all be clearly stated. Discuss how and when measurements were made. Discuss the precision and reliability of the measurements. How were spurious or missing measurements handled? Discuss who collected the data and how they collected it. Discuss how data were entered, checked, and processed.
  • Outcomes: Describe the study's primary and secondary outcome measures, and if needed explain why they were chosen to address the study objective. When possible, use outcomes that have been previously validated, or provide evidence of your own efforts to validate the measure. Emphasize patient-centered outcomes (eg, pain, days off from work, death) over intermediate outcomes (eg, change in forced expiratory volume, change in asthma score).
  • Data (or Statistical) Analysis:  Detail the primary statistical analysis and specify any software that was used, including the name of the software and the company that produces it. Provide references for any non-routine analytic methods. If appropriate, detail sensitivity analyses that explore how results change when assumptions about the investigation are modified.
  • Consent to participate: A statement that informed consent was granted by the participants should be present.
  • Ethical Approval: There should be a statement declaring that Ethical approval is present without details of the governing body for blinding purposes. 
  • Compliance with manuscript writing guidelines: You will be asked to verify compliance with guidelines for each corresponding study design (Check Table Below). You should add a statement clarifying which guideline you used while drafting the document. For further information on the reporting guidelines for health research, authors are suggested to refer to the EQUATOR network website (http://www.equator-network.org/)

 

Type of Study

Guideline

Randomized controlled studies

CONSORT (http://www.consort-statement.org/home/ CONSORT translations (www.consort-statement.org/consort-statement/translations/)
Standard protocol items for randomized trials,
SPIRIT (http://www.spirit-statement.org/)

Observational research: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies

STROBE (www.strobe-statement.org/)

Diagnostic accuracy studies

STARD (www.stard-statement.org/)

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

PRISMA (www.prisma-statement.org/)

Experimental animal studies

ARRIVE (www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive/)

 

Results

  • The demographic properties of the study population should be given. A table summarizing demographics will be preferred.
  • The main and secondary results of the hypothesis testing must be provided.
  • Commenting on the results and discussing the literature findings should be avoided.
  • Present as much data as possible at the level of the unit of analysis, graphically if possible. Emphasize the magnitude of findings over test statistics, ideally using size of effect and associated confidence intervals for each outcome. 

 

Discussion

The main and secondary results of the study must be briefly presented and compared with similar findings in the literature. Providing intensive background information should be avoided. Consider only those published articles directly relevant to interpreting your results and placing them in context. Do not stress statistical significance over clinical importance. Avoid extrapolation to populations or conditions that you have not explicitly studied in your investigation. Avoid claims about cost or economic benefit unless a formal cost-effectiveness analysis was presented in the Methods and Results sections. Do not suggest "more research is needed" without stating what the specific next step is. Optionally, you may include a paragraph "In retrospect, . . ." to candidly discuss what you would do differently if given the opportunity to repeat the study, so others can learn from your experience.

 

Limitations

The limitations of the study should be mentioned in a separate paragraph subtitled as the "Limitations" in the end of the discussion. Explicitly discuss the limitations of your study, including threats to the internal and external validity of your results. When possible, examine the magnitude and direction of each bias and how it might affect the interpretation of results.

 

Conclusion(s)

A clear conclusion should be made in the light of the results of the study. The potential effects of the results of the study on the current clinical applications should be stated in a single sentence. Inferences that are not supported by the study results should be avoided.

 

Acknowledgement(s), Disclaimer, Funding, Author contribution statement, Conflict of interest statement

All acknowledgements, disclaimers, funding, author contributions and conflicts of interests should be present in the Disclosures section of the First Page File and in the electronic submission system. We DO NOT ALLOW any of this information in the ARTICLE FILE for blinding purposes.


REFERENCES

We recommend you use a Reference Manager Software (RMS). You may find the reference style (CSL) of Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine in the following RMS: 

General guide for the number of References for each article type:

Article Type References
Original Research 30
Invited Review 30
Case Report/Series 15
Letter to the Editor 5

In-text Citations:

  • The referencing style of the Turkish Journal of Medicine is AMA (American Medical Association) style.
  • References should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text. 
  • References should be cited in the text by numbers in SUPERSCRIPT
  • When more than two references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space. 
    • Example: As reported previously, 1,4-7,19,24
  • You may use author names in your text, as long as these mentions are accompanied by numbered citations. Use last names only. For items with one or two authors, include both names. For items with three or more authors, include the first author's surname and then 'et al' or 'and colleagues'. Examples: Smith and Jones2 reported on the questionnaire. Hammersmith et al3 reported on the survey. 
  • Avoid referencing abstracts or citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. As with citation of an abstract of an article rather than citation of the original document, citation of the original document is preferred unless it is not readily available. Only items actually consulted should be listed. 
  • Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title). Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database.
  • Do not include unnecessary bibliographic elements such as month of publication, online publication date etc. 
  • When citing online journals, the DOI number is preferred over the URL link. 
  • Journal titles are abbreviated and in italics. Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database. Single word titles, such as Pediatrics, are not abbreviated. In journal titles, capitalize all major words.

 

Examples of citations are as follows:

Original Articles: Cevik E, Karakus Yilmaz B, Acar YA, Dokur M. Systematic Analysis of Theses in the Field of Emergency Medicine in Turkey. Turk J Emerg Med. 2016;15(1):28–32. doi:10.5505/1304.7361.2014.37074

Reviews: Akoglu H. User's guide to correlation coefficients. Turk J Emerg Med. 2018;18(3):91–93.doi:10.1016/j.tjem.2018.08.001

  •  Callaham ML. Current Practice of Emergency Medicine. 2nd ed. St. Luis, MO:Mosby;1991.

Book Chapter: Mengert TJ, Eisenberg MS. Prehospital and emergency medicine thrombolytic therapy. In: Tintinalli JE, Ruiz E, Krome RL, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 4th ed. New York, NY:McGraw-Hill;1996:337-343.

Internet: Fingland MJ. ACEP opposes the House GOP managed care bill. American College of Emergency Physicians. Web site. Available at: http://www.acep.org/press/pi980724.htm. Accessed August 26,1999.

Cited by a citation: Cauley JA, Lui L-Y, Ensrud KE, et al. Osteoporosis and fracture risk in women of different ethnic groups. JAMA. 2005;293(17):2102-2108. Cited by: Acheson LS. Bone density and the risk of fractures: should treatment thresholds vary by race [editorial]? JAMA. 2005;293(17):2151-2154.

 

Citing Electronic Resources

Online Journals with Volume and Page Information: 

Kapur VK, Obstructive sleep apnea: diagnosis, epidemiology, and economics. Respir Care. 2010;55(9):1155-1167. http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/09.10/09.10.1155.pdf Accessed November 8, 2011. 

Online Journals without Volume and Page Information: Mast CT, DeMuro-Mercon C, Kelly CM, Floyd LE, Ealter EB. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family. BMC Pediatrics. 2009;9:11. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-11 

Web Site: King MW. The Medical Biochemistry Page. http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org. Updated July 14, 2009. Accessed July 14, 2009. 

Online Book: Neinstein, L, ed. Adolescent Health Care. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott W&W; 2008. http://www.r2library.com/marc_frame.aspx?ResourceID=931. Accessed November 9, 2011. 

Chapter from an Online Book: Creating safety systems in health care organizations. In: Kohn, LT, Corrigan, JM, and Donaldson MS, eds. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine; 2000. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.ptp?record_id=9728&page=155. Accessed November 1, 2011. 

  • Amoxicillin. In:DRUGDEX System (Micromedex 2.0). Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics; c1974-2013. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/micromedex2/librarian#. Accessed October 22, 2013. 

TABLES

Tables should be included in the ARTICLE FILE after references section. 

General guide for the number of Tables and Figures for each article type:

Article Type Figures and Tables
Original Research 6
Invited Review 6
Case Report/Series 3
Letter to the Editor Not allowed
 
  • Data presented in the tables should not be included in its entirety in the text. 
  • Tables must be numbered consecutively. 
  • Each table should be placed in a new page.
  • Each table must be referred to in the text. 
  • Number and Title of each Table should be written at the top of each page before the Table. 
  • Arrange tables so that the primary comparisons of interest are horizontal, left-to-right (the standard reading order). 
  • Provide the N for each column or row and marginal totals where appropriate.

For the footnotes of the tables: The following symbols should be used, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, |, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡ 


FIGURES

What is a Figure and what is not?

  • All images, illustrations, photographs, drawings, graphs, flowcharts, are Figures. 
  • Scanned or photocopied graphs and diagrams are not accepted.
  • Tables, questionnaires, handouts are not Figures.

Technical Specifications

  • Figures should have at least 300 dots per inch (dpi) resolution, especially if they are in color. 
  • Black and White drawings and charts may have 150 dpi.
  • Graphs and diagrams must be drawn with a line weight between 0.5 and 1 point.
  • Avoid background gridlines and other formatting that do not convey information (e.g., superfluous use of 3-D formatting, background shadings). Graphs should not be 3-D unless the data are.
  • Omit internal horizontal and vertical rules. 
  • No titles should be included in the Figures. 
  • For graphs, axes should begin at zero; if they do not, a break should be shown in the axis

How to Upload Figures

  • Figures can be embedded in the Main Document /Article File in the text where the figure is used, or at the end of the document in separate pages. 
  • You should upload figures as PNG, JPG, JPEG or PDF files with their corresponding CAPTION and LEGEND during the Document Upload step.

Content requirements

  • We prefer graphics that show the distribution of data (e.g., scatter plots, 1-way plots, box plots) to those showing summaries of data (e.g., pie charts, bar graphs of means). Pie charts should not be used for research results.
  • If the data collected are paired (e.g., pre and post, or 2 different measures on the same subject), then choose a graphical format that conveys the inherent pairing of the data. If data are paired, they should be displayed as such.
  • If measurements are discrete, display as discrete points rather than a continuous line.
  • Odds ratios should be displayed on a logarithmic scale
  • Survival curves should include number at risk below x axis

Figure Captions and Legends

  • The information contained in the figure should not be repeated in its entirety, however reference to the figure must be referred in the text. 
  • Figure Captions and Legends should appear on a separate page after the References and Tables, with or without Figures. Figure Captions must be written in sentence case at this part of the manuscript (e.g., Macroscopic appearance of the samples.)

All tables and figures must have a caption and/or legend and be numbered (e.g., Table 1, Figure 2), unless there is only one table or figure, in which case it should be labelled “Table” or “Figure” with no numbering. 


Guidelines for Specific Research Study Designs

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)

RCTs must be reported in accordance with the CONSORT statement, summarized as follows:

  1. Title includes the phrase "randomized controlled trial"
  2. Clear depiction of the three elements of randomization: sequence generation, allocation, and concealment
  3. Clear description of which outcome assessments were and were not blinded
  4. A figure summarizing participant flow through the trial
  5. Protocol deviations described, and whether analysis is intention to treat
  6. Outcomes each reported with size of effect and associated confidence intervals.

Chart reviews

Least methodological elements that Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine seek in retrospective research are as follows:

  1. Trained and monitored abstractors use explicit protocols, precisely defined variables, and standardized abstraction instruments.
  2. Authors clearly describe how missing, conflicting, and/or ambiguous chart elements were coded.
  3. Interrater agreement assessed by having a sample of charts reviewed independently by two or more abstractors.
  4. When possible, abstractors are blinded to the study hypothesis and/or study group assignment, particularly for chart elements that are not wholly objective.

Observational studies

We prefer observational studies to be compliant with the latest STROBE guidelines.

Diagnostic accuracy studies

We prefer studies on diagnostic tests to be compliant with the latest STARD guidelines.

Studies on Clinical Decision Rules

We prefer clinical decision rules performed and reported in compliance with Green: Methodologic standards for interpreting clinical decision rules in emergency medicine: 2014 update.

Meta-analyses

Meta-analyses of therapeutic trials should be compliant with the PRISM-P 2015 guidelines, while meta-analyses of observational studies should be compliant with the MOOSE guidelines.


Editorial Policies

TJEM and WKM follow the suggestions, policies, and checklists of The Council of Science Editors (CSE), guidelines on editorial independence produced by the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and the code on good publication practice by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and checklists and advice for good research reporting of the EQUATOR network.

Editorial Conflict of Interest Policy

WAME indicates that "conflict of interest exists when an author, reviewer, or editor in the publication process (submission of manuscripts, peer review, editorial decisions, and communication between authors, reviewers, and editors) has a competing interest that could unduly influence his or her responsibilities (academic honesty, unbiased conduct and reporting of research, and integrity of decisions or judgments) in the publication process." TJEM requires that each author, reviewer, and editor must disclose to the Editor any conflict of interest related to family, personal, financial, political, or religious issues as well as any competing interest outlined above at the WAME's definition. If a reviewer, an associate editor, or an editor has a conflict of interest or believes that it is not appropriate to be a reviewer or an editor for a given manuscript, the reviewer or the editor should resign from the assignment. 

Authorship

The ICMJE Recommendations state that authorship credit requires:

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data.
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  • Final approval of the version published.
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

All of these conditions must be met. Each author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. Besides, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors. Any individuals listed as co-authors on a manuscript will receive an e-mail confirmation of the manuscript submission. The authors' collective responsibility is to determine that all people named as authors meet all four criteria. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding, data collection, or general supervision of the research group does not justify authorship. We wish authors to assure us that all authors included on a paper fulfill the criteria of authorship. Conversely, we also ask for assurance that no one else meets the requirements that have been excluded as an author.

Submitting author information

On submission, you will be asked to provide a name, e-mail address, ORC ID, and institutional affiliation for all contributing authors. The final published article will be constructed from these completed fields and not from the submitted first pages file. Affiliations listed should be those where the work was carried out when the research/article was written. If an author's affiliation has changed during the research/article, the author may list the affiliation when the research/article (or most significant portion of the research/article) was conducted, their current affiliation, or both. For clarity, the change of affiliation can be explained in the acknowledgments section. During the final author proof, you will be able to check and confirm this information. 

Acknowledging contributors

The authors should list all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship in the Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided general supervision of a research group or administrative support, writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Please ensure that anyone acknowledged has granted permission to be listed. Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed as Collaborators (e.g. ‘Clinical Investigators’), and their contribution should be described clearly in the contributorship statement – for example, “served as scientific advisors”, “critically reviewed the study proposal”, “collected data” or “ provided and cared for study patients”. All persons must give written permission to be acknowledged in the manuscript, and this document should be available to editors if requested.

Group authorship

If there is a very large number of authors, we may ask for confirmation that everyone listed met the ICMJE criteria for authorship. If they did, we might then suggest that the authors form a group whose name will appear in the article byline.

Author Contribution Statement

A contributorship statement is required for every manuscript submitted and should outline who has contributed to the planning, conduct, and reporting of the work described in the article. This should include both authors and contributors.

Joint first authorship

Joint first authors can be indicated by the inclusion of the statement ‘X and X contributed equally to this paper’ in the author details section of the manuscript. Further information can be provided in the contributorship statement if necessary.

Alteration to authorship

All authors must approve any change in authors after initial submission. This applies to additions, deletions, a shift in the order of the authors' names, or a modification to the attribution of contributions. Any alterations must be explained to the Editor. The Editor may contact any of the authors to ascertain whether they have agreed to any alteration.

Deceased authors

Deceased persons deemed appropriate as authors should be included with a dagger symbol (†) next to the author's name and a footnote stating that the author is deceased and giving the date of their death, e.g., †Deceased 10 October 2014. 

Conflict of interests of Authors

According to the ICMJE uniform declaration of competing interests, authors should disclose four types of information:

  • Their associations with commercial entities that provided support for the work reported in the submitted manuscript (the time frame for disclosure in this section of the form is the lifespan of the work being reported).
  • Their associations with commercial entities that could be viewed as having an interest in the general area of the submitted manuscript (the time frame for disclosure in this section is the 36 months before submission of the manuscript).
  • Any similar financial associations involving their spouse or their children under 18 years of age.
  • Non-financial associations that may be relevant to the submitted manuscript.

We are not aiming to eradicate competing interests as they are almost inevitable. We will not reject papers simply because authors have competing interests, but these will be declared in the published article. There is nothing inherently unethical about a competing interest, but it should be acknowledged and openly stated. Examples of competing interests include the following: board membership, consultancy, employment, expert testimony grants (including pending), contract research, lectures/other education events, speakers' bureau, patents (planned, pending or issued), receipt of equipment or supplies, royalties, stock/stock options/other forms of ownership, additional expenses not included in COIs already specified, other personal or professional relationships that may influence or appear to affect.

The corresponding author will be required to include a summary Conflict of Interests statement for all authors in the first pages file, which will be included in the published article. If there are no conflicts of interest for any authors, the default statement on the published article will be 'None declared’.

Copyright and Author Rights

The corresponding author agrees electronically on behalf of all authors to transfer all copyright ownership to the EMAT if the work is published in any medium. EMAT recognizes that works prepared by officers or employees of the Turkish government, as part of their official government duties, are in the public domain. The authors reserve all proprietary rights (other than copyright), including patent rights relating to the article's subject matter and the right for personal use in lectures, lecture notes, and exhibits. For all other uses, authors must seek written permission from EMAT and the publisher. All submitted material published elsewhere should be accompanied by the author and publisher's written consent. Photographs and any materials that contain personal information are accompanied by their signed release authorizing publication. All or part of the published articles, including the tables and figures in them, may not be published elsewhere without the editors-in-chief and the board members of the EMAT's approval and written consent. 

Corrections and Retractions

Corrections to published work

Errors are a part of science and publishing and require publication of a correction when they are detected. We expect authors to inform us of any mistakes they have noticed (or have been informed of) in their article once published. To maintain the scientific record, minor corrections that do not affect the paper's scientific understanding (formatting, typographical errors, wording) may be rejected. If the article has already appeared in an issue, an Erratum will be printed in the next available issue. The online version of the article will link to the Erratum, and vice versa. We may also choose to correct the actual pdf and xml published online with a note to the performed changes.

Retractions

Journal editors consider retractions in cases of evidence of unreliable data or findings, plagiarism, duplicate publication, and unethical research. We may consider an expression of concern notice if an article is under investigation. All retraction notices explain why the paper was retracted. A replacement version of the paper will be posted containing just the metadata, with a retraction note replacing the original text. The PDF will be replaced with a version watermarked with “Retracted” but the original text will remain accessible. A retraction notice will also be published in the next available print issue. In rare cases, we may have to remove the original content for legal reasons. In such cases, we will leave the metadata (title and authors) and replace the text with a note saying the article has been removed for legal reasons. A retraction notice will also be published online. 

Data sharing

Sharing the full data sets underlying your article's results enables reuse, reduces research waste, and promotes collaboration. We do not consider data deposition, including clinical trial data, in recognized repositories, to be prior publication. We encourage you that the data generated by your research that supports your article be made openly and publicly available upon publication of your article. Where it is not possible or viable to make data openly available (due to confidentiality or sensitivity issues), they should be shared through a controlled access repository. There are several public repositories to deposit data, such as OSF, Figshare, Zenodo, Dryad, fairsharing, re3data.org. If you share your data on the above repositories, we recommend that you cite them in the reference list – whether they are data generated by the author(s) or by other researchers. Where data are publicly available, these should be cited in the reference list in line with the recommendations of DataCite. Please use the following format: Creator (PublicationYear). Title. Version. Publisher. ResourceType. Identifier. 

Data availability statement 

Authors are asked to create a Data Availability Statement if they have shared their data, as below: Data is available in a public, open access repository: Please give the repository name, the persistent URL, and any conditions of reuse (e.g., license, embargo). Data are available upon request: Please state what the data are (e.g., de-identified participant data), who the data are available from, their publishable contact details (e.g., a generic lab email address or an individual's ORCID identifier – please ensure you have permission) and under what conditions reuse is permitted. Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available: Please state what the data are (e.g., de-identified participant data), who the data are available from, their publishable contact details (e.g., a generic lab email address or an individual's ORCID identifier – please ensure you have permission), and under what conditions reuse is permitted.

Funding

All sources of funding should be declared under the heading "Funding" with the First Pages File. Authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; in the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. If the funder(s) had no such involvement, this should be stated.

ORC ID for Authors and Reviewers

ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier) is an international, not-for-profit organization created to benefit researchers, research organizations, funders, and publishers. An ORCID iD is a unique and persistent digital identifier used to disambiguate researchers from one another. We have long supported the use of ORCID by integrating ORCID into our submission systems. We mandate ORCID iDs for all submitting and co-authors. Reviewers are also encouraged to connect their JournalOnWeb accounts to ORCID. Those who do not currently have an ID will be required to register, but this is free and takes a matter of seconds.

Patient Consent Policy

Healthy living and capable patients

Any article that contains personal medical information about an identifiable living individual requires the patient’s explicit consent before we can publish it. Any form in the patient's language, declaring that the patient is aware of the publication and use of his/her data is acceptable. When informed consent has been obtained, it is indicated in the published article. If consent cannot be obtained because the patient cannot be traced, then publication will only be possible by the approval of the local Ethics Committee and if the information can be sufficiently anonymized (see below). 

Patients who lack capacity

If the patient lacks the mental capacity to decide on publication, no one can consent on behalf of the patient. Even if someone has this power, by means, for example, of a health and welfare power of attorney, it has to be exercised in the patient's best interests. There may be some benefit to the patient having their case described in a publication, but this is usually not obvious or certain. In such cases, we will generally require any personal information to be anonymized or will not be able to publish it.

Deceased 

If the patient is deceased, according to the Turkish Law on Regulation On Personal Health Data issued in 21.06.2019 on Legal Gazette no:30808, the author(s) should seek permission from the next of kin as a matter of courtesy and medical ethics. If the relatives are not contactable, then publication will only be possible by the approval of the local Ethics Committee and signed declaration of the authors for legal accountability against the law mentioned above. 

Children

If the patient is under the age of 18, we require parents or guardians to provide consent on behalf of the minor. If the child has sufficient understanding of the consent process and its implications, the child must also sign the consent form. For younger children, even if parents consent, authors should consider whether the child might regret the publication of his or her identifiable details in the future. That ultimate decision to use material involving children (and those unable to consent for themselves legally) will rest with the journal editor. The editor will consider the possibility of future damage to an individual from the publication of material about them as a minor. For controversial cases, additional advice will be sought from the Ethics Committee of EMAT.

Images of patients

If there is any chance that a patient may be identified from a photograph or other static or moving image, or its legend or accompanying text, we need the patient's written consent to publication. Images – such as x rays, laparoscopic images, ultrasound images, pathology slides, or images of undistinctive parts of the body – or multimedia files (e.g., video, audio) may be used without consent so long as they are anonymized by the removal of any identifying marks and are not accompanied by text that could reveal the patient’s identity through clinical or personal detail. 

Anonymization

Any anonymized article cannot include any direct identifier (patient’s name, geographic location such as village or town, exact age, identity numbers, biometric data, photographs, and images including identifiable facial features. Images should be anonymized as instructed above. 

Ethical approval of research involving human participants

TJEM operates to the highest standards of research and publication ethics. The journal will act by the relevant international rules of publication and research ethics (COPE guidelines, WAME resources, WMA policies, and ORI) if any ethical misconduct is suspected. We expect authors to follow the World Medical Association's (WMA) Declaration of Helsinki.

An ethics committee's approval of research protocols following international agreements WMA Declaration of Helsinki is required for all studies. We need every research article submitted to include a statement that the study obtained ethics approval (or a statement that it was not needed and why), including the name of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s), the number/ID and Date of the approval(s).

We welcome detailed explanations of how investigators and authors have considered and justified their work's ethical and moral basis. If such detail does not easily fit into the manuscript, please provide it in the cover letter or upload it as a supplemental file when submitting the article. We will also be pleased to see copies of explanatory information given to participants. Even if we do not include such detailed information in a final published version, we may make it available to peer reviewers and editorial committees. We already ask peer-reviewers to consider and comment on the ethics of submitted work.

Editorial appraisal of the ethical issues

Ethics Committee approval or presence informed consent from patients is incredibly important, but an editorial appraisal of ethical issues goes beyond those two mandatory components. Editors of TJEM should judge whether each piece of work's overall design and conduct are morally justifiable, which may be as summed up by the following questions: How much does this deviate from current normal (accepted, local) clinical practice? What is the (additional) burden imposed on the patients (or others)? What (additional) risks are posed to the patients (or others)? What benefit might be added to the patients (or others)? What are the potential benefits to society (future patients)? Even when a study has been approved by a research ethics committee or institutional review board, editors may be worried about the work's ethics. They may ask authors for more detailed information.

Editors of TJEM may ask other editorial colleagues to evaluate the ethical aspects of an article, the authors’ comments, and the response of the relevant research ethics committee to the journal’s queries about ethics approval. This consultation may be informal, between the journal’s editors, or more formal, through seeking the advice of the EMAT Ethics Committee or the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

Our stance on unethical research 

We believe that editors of TJEM have to take on issues of unethical research to prevent unethical practice and protect patients. If the Editor, with or without the advice of EMAT Ethics Committee or COPE, considers the work in a submitted article ethically unsound, the editor may seek further advice or recommend investigation or action. The fact that the article would have been rejected anyway for other scientific or editorial reasons would not prevent the editor from taking such further action on serious ethics problems. In the first instance, the editor would usually contact the department head where the work was done to explain their concerns and recommend a local investigation. Secondly, the editor might write to the paper's guarantor or principal investigator's professional registration body. For a physician in Turkey, this body would be the Clinical Research Department of the Turkish Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency.

Informed Consent 

For articles concerning experimental research on humans, a statement should be included that clearly states that participants gave informed consent before taking part following a detailed explanation of the procedures they may undergo.

Ethical approval of research involving animals

Manuscripts will be considered for publication only if the work described follows international, national and institutional guidelines for the humane treatment of animals and complies with relevant legislation; has been approved by the ethics review committee at the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (where such a committee exists); for studies involving non-human primates, demonstrates that the standards meet those of the NC3Rs primates guidelines; for studies using client-owned animals, shows a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care and involves informed client consent.

Before a manuscript can be accepted, authors must confirm that legal and ethical requirements have been met with regards to the humane treatment of animals described in the study; specify in the Materials or Methods section the ethical review committee approval process, and the international, national, or institutional guidelines followed.

Approval of the research protocol by an ethics committee per international agreements "Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals (8th edition, 2011)" or "International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (2012)" is required for all experimental studies. 

Scientific Misconduct

There are differing definitions of scientific misconduct. We deal with these problems on a case by case basis while following guidance produced by bodies that include the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

WAME gives a useful overview of misconduct, using a slightly amended version of the US Office of Research Integrity definition of scientific misconduct and including these behaviors:

  • Falsification of data: ranges from fabrication to dishonest reporting of findings and omission of conflicting data, or willful suppression or distortion of data. 
  • Plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication: The appropriation of the language, ideas, or thoughts without crediting their real source and representation of them as one's original work. 
  • Simultaneous submission: this occurs when a person sends a paper to different publications at the same time, which can result in more than one journal publishing that particular paper. Articles submitted for publication must be original and must not have been submitted to any other journal. We require authors to disclose any details of related papers in press, including translations. This restriction does not apply to an abstract presented in scientific meetings and congresses.
  • Improprieties of authorship: improper assignment of credit, such as excluding others, misrepresentation of the same material as original in more than one publication, inclusion of individuals as authors who have not made a definite contribution to the work published or submission of multi-authored publications without the concurrence of all authors.
  • Misappropriation of others' ideas: Scholars can acquire novel ideas from others during the process of reviewing grant applications and manuscripts. However, improper use of such information can constitute fraud. 
  • Violation of generally accepted research practices: serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results. A lack of declaration of competing interests and funding/sponsorship and other failures of transparency.
  • Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: including but not limited to severe or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biological or chemical materials.
  • Inappropriate behavior about misconduct: this includes unfounded or knowingly false accusations of misconduct, failure to report known or suspected misconduct, withholding of information relevant to a claim or misconduct, and retaliation against persons involved in the allegation or investigation.
  • Salami slicing (or salami publication): is defined as the unnecessary splitting of findings from a single study across several publications. Salami slicing is considered a form of redundant publication. We do not accept publications where we suspect salami-slicing has occurred, as these publications have the potential to skew the scientific record and create biases in the results of meta-analyses. All submitted articles will be assessed for potential salami-slicing by our editorial team as part of our standard checks. Studies that share significant similarities in the hypotheses, population, and methods should usually be presented to the readers in a single paper. If you believe that you have legitimate grounds to submit multiple publications based on the same study, we ask that you inform the editorial office about all potentially overlapping papers (published or unpublished). For further information about best practices, please refer to the ICMJE guidance on overlapping publications.

Submission to TJEM implies that the work described has not been accepted for publication elsewhere, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and does not duplicate material already published.

Allegations of misconduct

If an editor has concerns that a submitted article describes something that might be considered misconduct in research, publication, or professional behavior, we may discuss the case in confidence with the EMAT Ethics Committee. If the case cannot be resolved by discussion with the author(s) and the Editor still has concerns, the case may be reported to the proper authorities. If, while reviewing an article, an editor is alerted to potential problems (for example, fraudulent data) in another publication, the editor may contact the journal in which the earlier publication raised concern. Readers that suspect misconduct in a published article are encouraged to report this to TJEM or WKM. Cases of research publication misconduct may also be referred to COPE in an anonymized format.

Plagiarism detection

TJEM and WKM are members of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content. All submitted manuscripts are screened with iThenticate to detect overlapping and similar text instances during the evaluation process. High similarity scores (> 20%) may lead to the rejection of a manuscript. In cases of suspected plagiarism, the manuscript will be immediately rejected, and the steps of “our stance on unethical research” will be considered (see above). 

Trial registration

Thorough and transparent reporting of clinical trials is incredibly essential. Their results underpin many clinical policies and funding decisions about treatments, and their findings must be robust and reliable. To ensure that all trial registries include the same kind of information, the World Health Organisation has developed a minimum dataset and a web portal that links to the major national and international trial registries. We encourage all authors to register their studies.

Responses to published work: Letter to the Editor

Responsible debate, critique, and disagreement are essential features of science; we welcome reader responses, questions, and comments to published articles to promote the discussion. Letters relating to or responding to previously published items in the journal will be reviewed by the editor and shown to the original article's authors. Correspondence that is irrelevant or lacking cogency will not be considered.


Peer-Review Process and Policies

All manuscripts submitted for publication are strictly reviewed for their originality, methodology, importance, quality, ethical nature, and suitability for the journal. Editors have full authority over the editorial and scientific content of TJEM and the timing of publication of the content.

TJEM is based on independent and unbiased double-blinded peer-reviewed principles. Only unpublished papers that are not under review for publication elsewhere can be submitted. The authors are responsible for the scientific content of the material to be published. TJEM reserves the right to request any research materials on which the paper is based.

The authors should not contact any of the section editors during the review process. All necessary information about a manuscript's process can be obtained from the editorial office ([email protected]). Due to TJEM’s double-blinded review principles, authors and reviewers' names are not known to the other.

Peer-review and publication process

  • Review by the Technical Editors and Similarity check with iThenticate [Technical Modifications or Assign to an Editor-in-Chief]
  • Evaluation by the Editors-in-Chief: [immediate reject, immediate revision, Technical Modification or further evaluation] -  1 week
  • Review by an Associate Editor, two or more external reviewers, and a Methodology Editor – 3 weeks
  • A decision by the Editors-in-Chief: [Accept, Revision, Reject]
  • Above loop is repeated until a decision is reached
  • Language and Copy editing
  • Author proofs 
  • Editor proofs
  • Article In Press online publication with a DOI
  • Publication in an Issue

Technical Modifications and Similarity Check

The submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the Technical Editors of TJEM for technical merit and compatibility with the Instructions to Authors. If the submission is technically correct, then a similarity check is performed with iThenticate, and the manuscript is sent to one of the Editors-in-Chief. 

Immediate Reject

We receive far more papers than we can publish; thus, all papers are reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief on submission, but only some will be sent on for external peer review. Our goal is to give you a decision within one week for submissions we are not sending on for further review.

Peer-Review

For submissions granted further evaluation, Editor-in-Chief assigns one of the Editors, at least two reviewers and one Methodology Editor for review. Our goal is to notify Authors with the acceptance of their submission for peer-review within 14 days (Technical Evaluation), complete the peer-review period in 21 days, and provide the first evaluation and notification in 28 days from the receipt of the manuscript. 

Revisions

The Authors are given 10 days for minor revisions and 20 days for major revisions

Language editing

All manuscripts will be evaluated by the Language Editor before considered for publication during the last loop of the revisions. Authors are expected to revise according to the Language Editor's suggestions with the help of a professional service or native English speaker.

Author proofs

The final page layout is provided to the authors within 30 days of the acceptance of the manuscript for publication, for a final review and proof. 

For Reviewers

Peer reviewers play a central and critical part of the peer-review process. We request that all reviewers adhere to a set of fundamental principles and standards during the peer-review process in research publication; these are set out below. Please read them carefully before you submit a review, as, by agreeing to be a reviewer for the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, you are acknowledging that you agree to and accept these conditions. These conditions are based on the COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers, which provides further information on how to be objective and constructive in your review.

Conflicts of interest

During the review process, we ask you to declare any potentially conflicting or competing interests (which could be personal, financial, intellectual, professional, political, or religious) so that editors can assess these and factor them into their decisions. Please refer any significant concerns over potentially competing interests to the editorial office before beginning your review. Besides, you should not agree to review a manuscript to gain sight of it with no intention of submitting a review.

Confidentiality

Manuscripts submitted to journals are authors' private, confidential property; reviewers should keep manuscripts and the information they contain strictly confidential. If you do choose to discuss the manuscript or your review with a professional colleague whose input you request as part of your review process, you are responsible for ensuring that they are made fully aware of the confidential nature of the discussion and that they must not disclose any information about the manuscript until the article is published. Any co-reviewer's identity and any potentially conflicting or competing interests they may have must be declared when submitting your review. Reviewers should not retain the manuscript for personal use and should destroy copies after submitting their review.

Timeliness

If you feel qualified to judge a particular manuscript, you should agree to review only if you can return a review within the proposed or mutually decided timeframe. If you cannot review, it is helpful to make suggestions for alternative reviewers if relevant, based on their expertise and without any influence of personal considerations or any intention of the manuscript receiving a specific outcome

Scientific misconduct

If you have concerns that misconduct occurred during the research or the writing and submission of the manuscript or noticed a substantial similarity between the manuscript and a concurrent submission to another journal or a published article, please do let the journal Editor know.

Appropriate feedback

As a reviewer, you must provide a fair, honest, and unbiased assessment of the manuscript's strengths and weaknesses. For example, be specific in your critique, and provide supporting evidence with appropriate references to substantiate general statements. Be professional and refrain from being hostile or inflammatory and from making libelous or derogatory personal comments. If the work is not precise because of missing analyses, the reviewer should comment and explain what additional analyses would clarify the work submitted. It is not the job of the reviewer to extend the work beyond its current scope.

Ownership of your review

You will remain the owner of the review you submit to us. It is your responsibility to ensure that you obtain the consent of any co-reviewer or other third party who may have contributed to your review.

Who reads your reports?

TJEM does not publish peer reviews. Depending on a journal's editorial policy, you may be offered the opportunity to make additional confidential comments to the editor. Unless the reviewer has been offered confidentiality, reviews will usually be passed on in full to authors and other reviewers when an editorial decision is made. Reviews should be civil and constructive, and editors reserve the right to edit or remove any comments felt to be inappropriate.

Transfer of your reports

Authors are given the option if they would like their manuscript passed to the Anatolian Journal of Emergency Medicine if it is rejected for publication by the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine. If the author of the manuscript you reviewed has taken up this option, your review will be passed on to the editor(s) of the nominated journal(s) along with the manuscript, and you might be invited to review a revised version

Restrictions on your use of your review

We do not restrict the use you make of your review once the manuscript has been published. However, an author’s manuscript remains confidential until it is published, and you must not disclose any information about an unpublished manuscript, including your review of it. Please note that if the article is NOT published, you may refer to the journal which requested your review and the fact that you have reviewed an article for it. However, you may not post any details of the article which was reviewed or any part of the review that would breach the confidentiality under which the article was provided to you for review. 

Your registration details

We hold your details on the database for the journal. We also ask your permission to store your information on the reviewer databases.


Publishing Policies

Preprints

Preprints (the pre-review manuscript submitted to a journal, or any earlier draft) aim to improve scientific findings' openness and accessibility, enhance collaboration among researchers, and document provenance of ideas. Importantly, they allow the timely sharing of completed research within the academic community. By posting preprints, authors can immediately make their findings available to the health sciences community and receive feedback on draft manuscripts before they are submitted to journals for formal publication.

TJEM fully supports and encourages the archiving of preprints in any recognized, not-for-profit, preprint server, such as medRxiv, arXiv, bioRxiv. We do not consider the deposition of preprints in dedicated preprint repositories to be prior publication. The authors must include a link/DOI to the preprint version of their manuscript during submission. We do not recommend that Accepted Manuscripts are placed on preprint servers.

You agree to add the following citation and link to your preprint upon publication of your article by TJEM: “This article has been published in [insert full citation] following peer review and can also be viewed on the journal’s website at [insert DOI].

Author Self-Archiving

As the author, you may wish to post your article in an institutional or subject repository or on a scientific, social sharing network. You may also link your published article to your preprint (if applicable).

Open Access Policy: Publication or Article Processing Fees

We do not ask for any kind of fees during submission, review, acceptance, or publication, and we do not ask for any payments to read or download final published articles. Publication in TJEM is entirely free and sponsored by EMAT.

Material Disclaimer

All information, opinions, and reports within the articles published in TJEM are the authors' personal opinions. The Editors, the publisher, and EMAT do not accept any responsibility for these articles. 

Advertising 

We publish advertisements for relevant medical products and companies in our journal, website, smartphone applications, and e-mail alerts. Advertisements are not allowed within articles. Income generated through these advertisements is used to support free, open-access publication of the journal. Detailed information concerning ads can be obtained from the WKM. Contact Publisher for further details.

Copyright

The entire contents of the Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine are protected under Indian and international copyrights. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International Public License.

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